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2023 united nations climate change cop 28 conference, dubai
Environment Protection Environmental Features Rahman Mahfuz Research

2023 United Nations Climate Change “COP-28” Conference, Dubai

2023 United Nations Climate Change “COP-28” Conference, Dubai

Rahman Mahfuz, An Environmentalist, Environmental and Financial Topic writer, Engineer, and a social worker and Organizer

On November 30, 2023, the United Nations Climate Change Conference COP 28   began at Dubai Expo City and will end on December 12, 2023.

It is a conference of representatives of the governments of different countries of the world, United Nations climate-related organizations, and representatives of various public and private organizations working to prevent international climate change known as the United Nations Climate Change Conference, (Conference of the Parties – COP).

The purpose of the conference is for governments to agree on policies to limit global temperature increases and adapt to the impacts associated with climate change.

The conference has been held annually since the first UN climate agreement in 1992. This year is the 28th conference (UNFCCC COP28).

More than 84,000 representatives, experts, journalists, and rights activists from 198 countries and regions of the world have registered to attend this year’s conference, the exact number will be known at the end of the conference.

In addition to the agenda to control global warming, the Israel-Hamas conflict has influenced this conference. On November 30, 2023, UN Secretary-General António Guterres opened the conference.

He warned about global warming in his speech, saying that 2023 will be the hottest year. Global warming could reach 1.5 Celsius more in this century than the pre-industrial level if we don’t take precautions, as stated in the Paris Agreement. The target to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius within this century will not be successful.

The conference leaders agreed to create a fund to compensate vulnerable countries affected by natural disasters, which is a positive step. However, it has not yet been specified how much a country will contribute to this fund. Countries such as the United Arab Emirates, Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan will contribute funds for the COP-28 conference.

The United Arab Emirates, Germany, Britain, the United States, and Japan have pledged financial support. The UAE and Germany pledged $1 billion each, Britain pledged at least $5.1 million, the United States pledged $17.5 million, and Japan pledged $1 million.

In this conference, the delegates will discuss issues from the future of fossil fuels to the long climate discussion. Over 140 countries’ heads of government, presidents, and prime ministers, or their representatives, will be speaking at the Dubai Complex on December 01-02, 2023. The conference focuses on climate issues, including the climate crisis in Gaza. There may also be conflicting agendas.

Twenty-two countries, including the United States, promised to reduce carbon emissions on the third day of the conference. They promise to triple nuclear power generation by 2050.

The countries that have pledged, in addition to the United States, are Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Ghana, Hungary, Japan, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Sweden, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom.

The United Arab Emirates, host of COP-28, is highly vulnerable to climate change because of its hot and humid climate. Between 1990 and 2022, the average annual air temperature in the UAE increased by 1.27 degrees Celsius (2.29 degrees Fahrenheit).

If Greenhouse gas emissions remain unchanged, Wet-bulb temperature in the area will likely surpass 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) for long periods by the 2070s.

The UAE is making efforts to reduce emissions in various sectors of its economy. Dust storms, rising sea levels, and drought are some of the impacts felt in the region. The ” Climate and Clean Air Coalition ” is providing information on this matter. Hydroponic farming, constructing Etihad Rail, reducing waste (especially food waste), and promoting a circular economy.

The UAE has committed to Net zero emissions by 2050; the government of this country is the first country in the Middle East to make such a promise. It was the first country in the region to sign the Paris Agreement on 21 September 2016.

The country has already invested US$50 billion in clean energy worldwide and plans to invest another US$50 billion by 2030. In November 2023, the UAE agreed to partner with the United States to invest another US$100 billion in clean energy.

On August 1, 2023, the United Arab Emirates permitted environmental activists to gather peacefully at a summit and promised to provide them with a space to protest, even though protests without permission are typically prohibited in the country. Some people argued for more international cooperation before the conference to ensure successful climate action.

Fatih Birol, the head of the International Energy Agency, hopes for a breakthrough at the summit. The geopolitical situation, conflicts over the war in Ukraine, and the strained US-China relationship are major obstacles to a successful summit.

Representatives of the government, Red Crescent, and various national and international organizations from Bangladesh participated in COP 28. The government of Bangladesh has been discussing with relevant parties in meetings and forums for the past few months to prepare for the conference and clarify its position.

Bangladesh has presented at the conference to prepare the country for disaster forecasting, called Early Warning for All. This initiative is based on the recommendations of the UN Secretary-General at COP 27. Other participants from Bangladesh are joining policy discussions, advocacy, and knowledge exchange on climate change prevention at various events.

Bangladesh believes that the world’s biggest challenge is the lack of international cooperation to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, as agreed in the Paris Climate Agreement.

The Climate Ambassador of Bangladesh highlighted the lack of global solidarity as the main obstacle to preventing climate change. They emphasized the importance of creating funds to reduce and prevent damages caused by climate change.

Governments worried about climate change are concerned that a war between Israel and Hamas in 2023, similar to the war in Ukraine, could hurt negotiations at COP28. A pre-COP meeting of ministers was held at the end of November 2023.

One hundred delegations and 70 ministers attended the meeting, which was more than any previous pre-COP meeting. Majid Al-Suwaidi, Director General of the COP, highlighted the decision made at the 2022 UN Climate Change Conference regarding ” Loss and damage ” to the environment caused by humans.

Pope Francis released an apostolic exhortation titled Laudate Deum, urging immediate action on the climate crisis and criticizing those who deny climate change.

The pope couldn’t attend the conference because he got sick. This would have been the first time a pope visited a UN climate change conference.

King Charles III is also expected to attend the conference. However, US President Joe Biden will not attend due to the ongoing Israel-Hamas war and domestic US government spending difficulties.

China’s representative announced that China, the United States, and the European Union will work together for the conference’s success. Insiders expected a climate agreement between China and the United States in November, similar to the 2014 deal that resulted in the Paris Agreement.

China announced a plan to decrease methane emissions before the conference, but there was a predicted argument regarding China’s coal utilization. China now sees coal as crucial for its energy security, but some argue that upgrading the power grid and internal energy markets can enhance energy security.

Talks between U.S. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen and Chinese Vice President He Lifeing decided to increase cooperation between the countries on climate issues, and much is expected from the meeting between Joe Biden and Xi Jinping at the 2023 APEC summit.

Cooperation between the two countries can lead to a successful outcome at COP28, says Kate Logan from the Asia Society Policy Institute.

On November 15, 2023, the US and China agreed to triple global renewable energy capacity by 2030. The US and China agreed after discussions between John Kerry, the US climate envoy, and Xi Jinping, China’s Vice President.

The agreement focused on reducing greenhouse gases, such as non-carbon dioxide warming agents. However, it was criticized for not including China’s commitment to eliminate coal-fired power plants. COP28 President-elect Sultan Al Jaber hailed the agreement as a “significant result”.

Reference: Google Wikipedia and different news Articles related on the COP 28.

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