What is the strength of the tree against gravity?
By Amila Khan
Without water, the existence of plants and animals is impossible. While all the animals on the earth can actively take in and leave the water, how do plants move water upwards on all their stems and leaves? Scientists have solved that mystery and are explaining the matter.
Water gives life, saves lives. Especially plants need a lot of water. That’s why there is a huge demand for water in the Botanical Gardens in Hamburg. Biologists working there are very knowledgeable about the properties of water.
Water is a ubiquitous substance that is an essential element of animals and plants, said Kirsten Shearer and, a biologist working in Hamburg. None of us can live long without water. Our life begins in a small bag of water in the mother’s womb. In biology, water is the ubiquitous solvent and agent. Body and cells – Water plays a central role everywhere.
Although it sounds simple, one of the important water properties is that it is a ubiquitous solvent. Not only dirt but also water dissolves the nutrients required for the survival of plants.
Many large trees can send the necessary water without a pump on the branches and leaves several meters above. It is possible by using the two characteristics of water.
First of all, water is an adhesive but has qualities. Water sticks to the smooth surface. It rises a little bit along the wall of the test tube. The water level of the edge is slightly higher than the middle part.
The second characteristic of water is cohesion: the tendency of water molecules to be connected. That’s why about 28 to 30 drops of water can easily catch on a small coin of two cents. After overcoming the force of gravity, the water overflows and comes out but does not burst.
Due to the combined effect of the adhesive and cohesion energies, water can be driven upwards, ignoring gravity’s force.
This so-called capillary energy helps to raise the water in the plants. This is possible due to the thin ducts of the roots and stems of the tree.
“Water can rise to a certain height in a capillary tube, less than 2 millimeters in diameter,” said Kristen Sheridan. The narrower the tube, the higher the water will be able to rise. The conduit’s average diameter through which water flows through the wood is fifty micrometers, i.e., 0.05 millimeters.
The drain is so thin that water can easily rise to a height of 5 to 10 meters in the tube. That water, however, could not reach the top of a giant tree a hundred meters long. That requires a process.
The evaporation process on the leaves at the top of the tree causes a flow, suction tension. It’s a lot like pulling the liquid through the mouth using a straw. Transposition or removal at the top causes upward flows, which helps the water reach unimaginable heights.
The process of evaporation of water creates a cold environment. That is why the environment around the forest is relatively cold.
Byron Plus / SB