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cop27, significant decisions must make to reduce emissions to combat climate change effectively
Aivee Akther International Environment

COP27: Significant decisions must make to reduce emissions to combat climate change effectively

COP27: Significant decisions must make to reduce emissions to combat climate change effectively


The Climate Conference COP27 started on Sunday in Egypt’s Sharm el-Sheikh tourist center. About 30,000 delegates participate in the two-week conference as observers, along with heads of state and government from 120 countries and diplomats from 198 countries.

Among them are the leaders of various organizations and institutions of the private sector, researchers, civil society, and social movements. The conference has more than two dozen Agenda items in three sections.

Negotiations initiated in 2007 culminated in the conclusion of the Paris Agreement in 2015, in the context of climate change turning from a presumption into a brutal reality.

However, the new phase of negotiations, called the Bali Action Plan, was supposed to end in 2009. Negotiations have been delayed mainly by the need for more consensus among countries that have historically emitted large amounts of harmful greenhouse gases and the largest emitters in recent times.

By reaching Paris Agreement in 2015, humanity as a whole, and countries particularly affected by the effects of climate change, had lost much of what had been achieved in the previous eight years.

First, the historic agreement reached in 1992 called the Convention On Climate Change declared the principle of determining the roles and actions of countries to combat climate change based on common but differentiated responsibilities and associated capacities.

Under this principle of the Framework Charter signed, the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. An exciting aspect of the agreement was that it included a list of countries responsible for emissions.

Under it, greenhouse gas emitting countries set targets to reduce their emissions. Countries that signed the protocol had a legal obligation to abide by it.

Sadly, the agreement suppose to implement on February 16, 2005, but no country has reduced its greenhouse gas emissions by the end of the period. No punitive action could be taken against them for breach of contract because they were strong.

As powers, they later set another commitment period called the ”Second Commitment Period”. Here, collectively, the emissions reductions they commit to do little to combat climate change.

On the other hand, the negotiations that started in 2007 led to the Paris Agreement in 2015, but all member countries have to pledge to reduce emissions in this agreement.

The historical responsibility of responsible countries has been shared among all nations. Moreover, the most developed rich countries, including developing countries like India and China, are responsible for this. Under the Paris Agreement, all countries commit to contributions (NDCs) to reduce emissions.

Here again, the sad truth is that even if all countries fulfill their pledges, climate change will not improve significantly.

In addition, while there is a legal obligation to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, where member states still need to meet their commitments.

There is no possibility of meeting the Nationally Determined Contribution commitments of the Paris Agreement because there is no legal obligation to comply with the Paris Agreement.

As a result, humanity has regressed from its past progress through the Paris Agreement, and everyone is responsible for it.

Commitments to reduce emissions are not optional or subject to any formula. There is also no legal obligation to fulfill the promise or contract.

Amid all this, COP-27 is happening. Its two dozen Agenda items mainly deal with the pointless Kyoto Protocol and the weak Paris Agreement. Negotiations under the Framework Charter are ongoing on several issues.

However, these talks will be of little use to emitting countries and humanity if significant action cannot take to reduce emissions, the key to combating climate change.

Pledges of trickle-down aid to harmful countries without significantly reducing emissions will worsen the climate change situation rather than improve it.

So, diplomats and government officials can focus on agenda items. They should do it as routine work. However, political leadership must focus on how responsible countries can reduce emissions more. Bangladesh should take the lead in this regard.

Besides, the second issue that Bangladesh needs to emphasize politically is what the international community, particularly the rich countries responsible for emissions, will do for those displaced by climate change.

Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s position on these two main issues is clear. She has talked about these in the past.

It is the duty of Bangladeshi politicians who come to Egypt to advance these two political priorities without focusing on retail issues.

Hopefully, efforts to create a new fund to compensate countries affected by climate change are finally seeing the light of day.

Some countries of the developed world wanted to avoid keeping the issue of this fund called ‘Loss and Damage’ in the main Agenda of the conference.

However, Due to mass people voting for the first time, the compensation fund has taken its place on the Agenda. The fund is mainly for adaptation and mitigation of affected countries.

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